Refresher courses – Monday

08.30 hr – 09.30 hr

Adrie J.J. Bos

Editor-in-Chief of the journal Radiation Measurements and Senior researcher and lecturer at Delft University of Technology

The students will learn:

  • about the ever increasing number of manuscripts submitted for publication
  • why people like to publish
  • to select the appropriate publication outlet
  • to select the type of manuscript
  • the importance of the ‘Guide for Authors’
  • to pay attention to ethical standards
  • that the “Quality of a publication” is a relative understanding
  • most common errors in manuscript language
  • how to structure a research article
  • that the sequence of writing is not the same as reading it
  • the importance of the cover letter
  • key aspects about the peer-review process

Janette K. Klingner, Davis Scanlon and Michael Pressley, How to Publish In Scholarly Journals, Educational Researcher, Vol 34, Issue 8, 2005 pages: 14 – 20

Retrievable from:

Prof. Hilde Bosmans

University of Leuven

Participants will be able

  • to explain how patient doses are measured and calculated in radiology
  • to illustrate the opportunities of patient dose monitoring
  • to explain how patient doses can be further personalized
  • to explain how diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are obtained
  • to illustrate how the DRLs can be used to improve the radiological practice

Participants will learn about

  • the necessary next steps and expected benefits for patients and population

Dr. Chris Englefield

Kings College London

This refresher provides an insight into the concept of security culture and an overview of the importance of an effective radiological security culture in a premises such as a hospital or a university to deter the adversary by:

  • understanding how people influence each other’s behavior;
  • understanding the role of leadership in modelling the desired behaviors;
  • using day-to-day operations to disrupt hostile surveillance.

Participants will be able to:

  • explain the differential application of the “need-to-know” and the “need-to-share”;
  • devise strategies for influencing colleagues from Chief Officers to Parking Attendants;
  • work towards sustainability of their security culture.

Participants will also be informed about sources of information and international best practice on security and in particular security culture.

The presentation and an extended explanation of the logic will be provided to delegates.

IAEA. Nuclear Security Culture Implementing Guide. Nuclear Security Series No. 7. International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna, 2008

Retrievable from:

Boguslaw Michalik

Participants will learn about:

  • physical phenomena leading to the presence of natural radionuclides in environment
  • properties of natural radionuclides influencing possible exposure scenarios
  • industrial activities involved in NORM

Participants  will be able:

  • to identify generic situation when presence of natural radionuclides may be important from radiation protection perspective
  • to understand crucial parameters determining  occupational exposure and environmental impact related to the presence of natural radionuclides
  • to define generic legal requirements

Lecture content :

  • Rudiments of radiation physics (types of decay and radiation, successive decay , decay series, equilibrium/ disequilibrium),
  • Identification of processes leading to NORM creation,
  • Exposure to humans/environment scenarios including building materials,
  • Differences between NORM contaminated materials and contaminated materials with artificial radionuclides,
  • Applied terminology and existing definitions,
  • Development of existing regulation in historical context.

09.45 hr – 10.45 hr

Jean-Francois Lecomte

IRSN, France

  • To present the main evolutions of the international system of radiological protection. This system has been built by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Information will be provided on the setting of the basic principles, the elaboration of a model for risk tolerability for practices and the rationale of the dose limits.
  • To provide explanation about the shift in the ICRP recommendations from a process-based approach (practices versus interventions) to a unified protection approach based on the characteristics of three types of radiation exposure situations: existing, planned and emergency exposure situations.
  • To discuss the application of this new approach in particular as far as existing exposure situations are concerned (e.g. radon, cosmic rays in aviation, NORM industries, post-accident situations…) as well as the challenges still to be dealt with to consolidate the system of radiological protection and make it readable.
  1. ICRP 26: ICRP, 1977. Recommendations of the ICRP. ICRP Publication 26. Ann. ICRP 1 (3).
  2. ICRP 60: ICRP, 1991. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Ann. ICRP 21 (1-3).
  3. ICRP 103 : ICRP, 2007. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103. Ann. ICRP 37 (2-4).

Dr. Mercè Ginjaume

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)

  1. To be aware of the latest changes regarding individual monitoring regulation, in particular the reduction of annual workers’ limit on the equivalent dose for the lens of the eye.
  2. To learn how to identify the workplaces requiring monitoring of the extremities, the skin and the lens of the eye.
  3. To be able to decide which is the best monitoring procedure for a given workplace: type of dosimeter, location of the dosimeter.
  4. To be able to interpret the results of the monitoring and to define radiation protection measures to optimize the workers’ procedures and to reduce doses, when appropriate.

Course introduction
Monitoring the extremities, the skin and the lens of the eye presents several practical challenges. As a result, monitoring is often not done as it should be. In particular, the monitoring of the dose to the lens of the eye is not usually performed on a regular basis. In 2015, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a new version of ISO 15382 to provide guidance on how and when this monitoring should be done, for all the different types of workplace fields.

The content of the refresher course “Procedures for monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye, the skin and the extremities” is based on the recommendations of ISO 15382:2015 and on the requirements on personal dosimetry established by the EURATOM 2013/59 Directive. 

Course content

  1. Introduction: scope, objectives
  2. Regulation in individual monitoring
  3. Assessment of dose levels prior to monitoring
  4. Individual monitoring procedures, performance of personal dosimeters
    • Extremity and skin dosimetry
    • Eye lens dosimetry
  5. Interpretation and management of results
  6. Basis for setting a monitoring program
    • application in a medical workplace
    • application in an industrial workplace

EC, 2014. European Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom on basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom. OJ of the EU. L13; 57: 1–73. Available at:

EC, 2009. RADIATION PROTECTION NO 160. Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation. Luxembourg. Available at:

IAEA, 2014. Implications for occupational Radiation Protection of the New Dose Limit for the Lens of the Eye. IAEA TECDOC 1731, Vienna. Available at:

IEC, 2010. International electrotechnical commission. Radiation protection instrumentation – Measurement of personal dose equivalents Hp(10) and Hp(0,07) for X, gamma, neutron and beta radiations – Direct reading personal dose equivalent meters. IEC 61526. ISBN 978-2-88912-063-5, Geneva.

IEC, 2012. International electrotechnical commission. Radiation protection instrumentation – Passive integrating dosimetry systems for environmental and personal monitoring of photon and beta radiation. IEC 62387. ISBN 978-2-83220-518-1, Geneva.

ICRP, 2007. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103. Ann. ICRP 37 (2-4)

ICRP, 2012. ICRP Statement on Tissue Reactions/Early and Late Effects of Radiation in Normal Tissues and Organs – Threshold Doses for Tissue Reactions in a Radiation Protection Context. ICRP Publication 118. Ann. ICRP 41(1/2).

IRPA, 2014. Guiding Principles for establishing a Radiation Protection Culture.
Available at:

IRPA, 2016. Guidance on implementation of eye dose monitoring and eye protection of workers. Prepared by IRPA TG on the impact of the Eye Lens Dose Limits. Published by IRPA. Available at:

ISO, 2015. International Standard Organization. ISO/15382:2015(E). Radiological protection – Procedures for monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye, the skin and the extremities. Geneva.

Vanhavere F. et al. ORAMED: Optimisation of Radiation Protection for Medical Staff. EURADOS Report 2012-02 ISSN 2226-8057, ISBN 978-3-943701-01-2, 2012. Available at:

Pierre Legoux

World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS)

  • To identify and discuss the most common motivations that may lead an individual to undertake malicious acts
  • To provide some guidance for identifying individuals with malicious intent
  • To recognise the need for a balanced insider mitigation programme combining effective cost effective security provisions and operational needs
  • To review some security practices and policies that can be implemented to help mitigate the insider threat
  • To explore interactions between security culture and security practices.

Participants will be able to:

  • explain what an insider is and what motivates people to do harm
  • list the key elements of an insider mitigation programme
  • explain why keeping a balance between employee morale and security expectations is important
  • describe the process for obtaining senior management support and engaging all staff into security matters
  • suggest some possible improvement in their day to day operations and reduce the insider threat in their own organisation.

Dr. Leo van Velzen

  • To learn about the applicability of instruments and methods for the radiological characterization in NORM generating industries in order to assess:
    • instruments and methods that may be applied during daily routine (g. normal operations) or special circumstances (e.g. maintenance) to prove to be in compliance with National Regulations based on EC 2013/59 EURATOM;
    • elevated radiological health risks and to assist in the decision making process to take adequate countermeasures;
    • the level of the radiological contamination of materials (g. materials to be processed, products and residues).

Participants will be able:

  • to define/set up a list of requirements for on-site and laboratory equipment. With special attention to handheld radiation monitors and gamma spectroscopic systems;
  • to balance the applicability of instruments for radiological characterization and methods for the participant’s challenges.

Participants will also be informed about:

  • NOR concentrations that may be expected in ores, beneficiated materials, processed (by)products and/or residues/wastes, both during operations and maintenance.

11.00 hr – 12.00 hr

Sylvain Andresz

CEPN, France

Participants will learn about:

  • Process of elaborating a survey: what to do (and not);
  • Possible channels of distribution that can be used;
  • Presentation of some of the results of a survey;
  • Potential statistical misunderstandings, for example:
    • About the size of the sample;
    • The use of the “mean” value;
  • The results of the survey specifically addressed to the international “young radiation protection generation” and possible subsequent actions.

Course introduction

The background of this session is a survey specifically addressed to the international “young radiation protection generation” (professionals and scientists) initiated by the Youth Club of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) and the Rising Generation Group of the UK Society for Radioprotection (SRP).

The survey was designed to gather elements of information about the young radiation protection generation (background etc.), identify ways to secure and foster it and also collect ideas for further development. The survey ran from July to December 2017 and was widely distributed – in particular, the IRPA YGN contacts list was activated.

Moreover, this refresher will be an opportunity to launch a dialogue with the public to discuss openly the results and possible associated actions.

Approach to the Analysis of Survey Data, Statistical Services Centre, The University of Reading, 2001

(document available at

Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them), Phillip I. Good, James W. Hardin, John Wiley & Sons, 2012

Prof. Pedro Vaz

University of Lisbon

Participants will learn:

  • to develop the awareness about the importance of computational methods in modern Dosimetry and Radiation Protection, namely in order to quantify and evaluate medical and occupational doses and exposures and to perform radiological risk assessment
  • to strengthen the knowledge, skills and competences in computational methods (Monte Carlo, deterministic and hybrid methods) used in Computational Dosimetry
  • to analyse the shortcomings and pitfalls of the international System of Radiation Protection and to discuss the importance of state-of-the-art computational and modelling methods to overcome them
  • to get acquainted with:
    • Monte Carlo, deterministic and hybrid simulation programs and tools, representative of the state-of-the-art in Computational Dosimetry
    • The state-of-the-art of computational phantoms (voxel, hybrid, etc.) and associated methodologies
    • Challenges faced by Computational Dosimetry
  • to present prospective views about emerging and hot topics such as:
    • the future System of Radiological Protection,
    • the evolution of the concept of effective dose,
    • the future of medical dosimetry, with individual risk analysis using patient specific and patient dependent phantoms

Case studies will be presented and discussed with the participants. The paradigm of the international system of radiological protection will be challenged, in view of on-going computational developments, namely the development of patient dependent phantoms for internal and external dosimetry in multiple exposure situations. Hot topics and future trends in computational dosimetry will be analysed.


Bibliography (selected references)[1]

The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103. Ann. ICRP 37 (2-4), 2007

Adult Reference Computational Phantoms. ICRP Publication 110. Ann. ICRP 39 (2), 2009

Handbook of Anatomical Models for Radiation Dosimetry (Eds. Xie George Xu and Keith F. Eckerman), CRC Press. Taylor & Francis (2010)

  1. Lee et al. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models. Phys. Med. Biol. 52 (2007) 3309–3333
  2. Xu et al. A review of dosimetry studies on external-beam radiation treatment with respect to second cancer induction. Phys. Med. Biol. 53 (2008) R193–R241
  3. Lee et al. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry. Medical Physics, Vol. 35, No. 6, June 2008
  4. Shimizu et al. Radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor data, 1950-2003. BMJ 2010;340:b5349
  5. D. Newhauser and M. Durante. Assessing the risk of second malignancies after modern radiotherapy. Nature Reviews Cancer 11, 438-448 (June 2011)
  6. Xu et al. An exponential growth of computational phantom research in radiation protection, imaging, and radiotherapy: a review of the fifty-year history (topical review). Phys. Med. Biol. 59 (2014) R233–R302
  7. Geyer et. al. The UF/NCI family of hybrid computational phantoms representing the current US population of male and female children, adolescents, and adults—application to CT dosimetry. Phys. Med. Biol. 59 (2014) 5225–5242
  8. Petoussi-Henss ET AL. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms. Phys. Med. Biol. 59 (2014) 5209–5224
  9. Rühm et al. Dose and dose-rate effects of ionizing radiation: a discussion in the light of radiation protection. Radiat Environ Biophys (2015) 54: 379

[1] Other non-listed references that may be of interest include:

User Manuals of computer programs MCNP(x), PENELOPE, FLUKA, GEANT4, etc.

Other ICRP publicatons


[1] Other non-listed references that may be of interest include: User Manuals of computer programs MCNP(x), PENELOPE, FLUKA, GEANT4, etc.
Other ICRP publicatons

Ir. Folkert Draaisma

Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, NRG, Petten

Participants will be informed about:

  • safety issues in older nuclear installations that occur due to aging and (necessary) changes, like maintenance, replacement, renovations, new businesses
  • safety culture aspects, in particular in relation to how to improve radiation safety culture
  • learning from events, based on the determining underlying risk factors (TRIPOD method)
  • examples of a research reactor, hot cell laboratories, decommissioning and waste treatment facilities

Participants will be able

  • to recognize issues in older nuclear installations that introduce safety risks
  • to know basic aspects of (radiation) safety culture
  • to determine underlying risk factors in order to learn from events
  • to be aware of developing a questioning attitude to improve safety
  • to recognize pitfalls regarding safety issues to older nuclear installations
  • to improve (radiation) safety culture in their daily job.

Prof. Hans Vanmarcke

The participants will learn:

  • The inhalation of the decay products of the radioactive noble gas radon is the largest single contribution to the population exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation
  • Radon is part of the uranium series
  • How to measure radon and its decay products
  • How does radon get into a building
  • Sources of indoor radon
  • How to reduce the radon concentration in a building
  • Radon surveys in dwellings
  • Radon prone areas


Bart Goessens

Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen

Participants will have

  • Insight and overview on medical surveillance as part of occupational care for radiological workers:
    • Legal and instrumental aspects of medical surveillance in general
    • Practice in the Netherlands of medical surveillance of radiological workers
    • Background of (radiation induced) cataract of the eye.
    • Proposed surveillance of the risk of the eye in radiological health surveillance.

Participants will learn about:

  • Latest insights on the interaction of radiation and the human eye lens, diagnostic aspects and treatment
  • The outline of the NCS publication on prevention of radiation induced aberrations of the eye lens

Participants will be able

  • To integrate surveillance of the eye into their regular medical surveillance of radiological workers.
  • Chodick, G et al. Risk of Cataract after exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation: a 20 year prospective cohort study among US radiologic technologists J.of Epidemiol. 2008. 168 p620-31
  • Vano, E., et al.,Radiation cataract risk in interventional cardiology personnel. Radiat Res, 2010. 174(4): p. 490-5.
  • Prokofyeva, E., A. Wegener, and E. Zrenner, Cataract prevalence and prevention in Europe: a literature review.Acta Ophthalmol, 2013. 91(5): p. 395-405
  • Ciraj-Bjelac, O., et al., Risk for radiation-induced cataract for staff in interventional cardiology: is there reason for concern? Catheter Cardiovasc Interv, 2010. 76 (6): p. 826